The world is increasingly urban, with 55% of the world’s population living in cities. DFID does a lot of programming in cities, promoting economic growth, better governance and social inclusion. However no two cities are alike, and there are hugely varied socio-economic pressures and opportunities that cities place on the poor. This means that urban poverty differs greatly from rural poverty, and poverty reduction relies on a complex understanding of the highly interdependent multiple dimensions of urban poverty – which is turn requires varied programmatic solutions. ICED has therefore developed a wide range of papers on how urban programming can promote improved economic empowerment, reduce violence, increase digital inclusion, create new jobs and markets, and drive inclusive urban growth.

Papers, case studies, presentations and research materials on this topic include: