ICAI, in its 2015 report ‘Assessing Impact of the Scale-up of DFID’s support to Fragile States’, included a recommendation for DFID to provide guidance on targeted infrastructure components to ensure sustainable impacts in fragile states programming.

DFID commissioned the ICED facility to conduct a piece of research in response to this recommendation. This document is the desk review initiating the research.

The research terms of reference frame two key high level questions:

I. What interventions (including types of infrastructure), approaches, investments and levers of influence are most  effective in promoting sustainable infrastructure development in fragile and conflict affected states?

II. How can infrastructure development be promoted in a way that:

  • Minimises the risk of doing harm?
  • Proactively supports efforts to build long-term stability?

This annotated bibliography looks at research and other relevant materials, drawing mainly on documents published following the last DFID commissioned research on this topic. It represents the first stage of the project, and will help to inform the priority issues for four country level case studies comprising the remainder of the research.