The effective planning and delivery of vital infrastructure is central to realising the full economic potential of cities to drive growth and development. In Nairobi, improvements to the operation and safety of the rail network were impeded by large scale occupation of land along railway lines through the Mukuru and Kibera informal settlements. In 2006, the operation of Kenya railways was contracted to Rift Valley Railways, a private company given responsibility to run passenger and freight services for 25 years. Rift Valley Railways identified that the presence of informal settlements, along the line, created serious hazards and limited the profitability of the service. In response government initially identified that settlers were to be removed and compensated, with a free standing wall to be constructed to prevent future encroachments.