This urban water and sanitation (WASH) case study covers lessons from interventions in three fragile and post-conflict states: the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Sierra Leone and Somalia. The case study forms conclusions from these three case studies, plus additional material from Syria and Yemen, to inform what works and what commonly does not work in developing urban WASH services in countries transitioning out of conflict.

This urban WASH case study forms part of an ICED research project for DFID’s Growth and Resilience Department to investigate infrastructure programming in Fragile and Conflict Affected States. The two further country focused case studies on Somalia and Afghanistan can be found here, alongside an overall consolidated report which summarises all the findings and key learning points on infrastructure programmes for DFID.

The objective of the overall assignment is to make practical recommendations on approaches to infrastructure development in FCAS. The primary audience is DFID advisers and programme managers; however, the findings are also expected to be of interest to other donors and sector stakeholders.