This briefing note provides an overview of the potential opportunities for integrating water considerations into infrastructure and wider economic development programming. The brief explains the underlying theories of change that link water to economic growth, and provides examples of how water might be included in donor programmes. It also sets out practical considerations for design, appraisal and evaluation. It draws upon lessons from a recent ICED Transboundary Water study in South Asia, a subsequent DFID workshop to discuss water for economic development, and wider evidence on the costs and benefits of improved water management.